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質疑肉食,越來越多人傾向維根(純素)主義

Veganism on the increase as more people question eating meat

http://www.monstersandcritics.com/lifestyle/life/features/article_1609673.php/Veganism-on-the-increase-as-more-people-question-eating-meat

 
摘自歐洲人氣頗盛的設群網站Monster and Critics
By Lisa Krassuski Jan 5, 2011

<柏林訊> 「維根」(純素)的訴求是杜絕所有動物相關的產品,包含不採用動物性食物、服飾或其他日用產品,擁護這種主張的人口與日遽增。

持純素的維根生活意指在生活中完全排除任何動物性產品。擁護者最常見的理由是認為此種生活方式在道德上堅守對動物權利與福祉的維護,此外亦有基於自身健康、保護環境、靈性與宗教思維等因素者。

老派的觀點認為「維根」(純素)就是那些只喝豆漿、不穿皮製衣物與鞋子,以及餵狗馬鈴薯泥的人。近年為了地球環境、民眾的健康與動物福祉,各方以開放的態度極力倡導純素理念,過往的那種老式成見已漸漸改變。

目前在美國,純素者大約1%的人口,而全球支持純素主義與素食主義者正在急遽的增加當中。德國素食協會(VEBU)執行長 Sebasian Zoesch表示:「當今,素食主義是最夯也最受關切的議題。」

德國素食協會的會員代表德國境內的素食者,包含目前還食用蛋與奶製品的素食者在內,光是去年一年會員人數就從2,700人增加到3,500人。 Zoesch認為:「純素主義的思潮正經歷重大變革,或許因為它是更為協調的生活方針。

柏林知名的餐館 La Mano Verde 提供多種美味純素菜單,像是櫛瓜香捲、胡桃義大利麵醬、蘿蔔腰果義大利餃等等,讓老饕們大享輕淨美食。「整個餐館所有的菜餚都是純素的材料,但由於某些非素食者對於『純素』這樣的字眼帶有成見,我們在菜單上會刻意避開強調相關的字詞。」餐廳主廚Christiane Radin表示。基於這樣的考量,餐廳改以強調「蔬食」,希望吸引肉食者與非維根的素食者上門品嚐素食。

純素的人口增加,與過去10年來有機飲食的倡導與成長有相當的關係。並且,純素飲食更經過實證能夠降低心臟疾病與肥胖連帶疾病的發病率。無論採取哪一種飲食型態,均衡攝取營養是非常重要的關鍵。專家建議每人每日應該攝取5份蔬果,而應降低精鍊穀物的攝取。多數的營養在粗糧被精緻化過程都已流失。純素的飲食亦可避免攝取氫化脂肪,但要特別注意加強維他命B12、D2和Omega3的攝取,特別是孕婦與兒童,採取純素飲食的營養均衡更要格外留意。

專家表示,雖然沒有額外進行數量上的詳細調查世界上純素與素食的人口變化,但在日常生活中遠離肉食的人口確實不斷增加中。 VEBU 執行長 Zoesch 說道:「摒除肉食能夠對於拯救環境問題是一個很新的理念。」事實上,人道與健康因素在過去同樣是「維根人」最關心的重點。過去一年來,強納森。弗爾(Jonathan Safran Foer )所著《食用動物》(Eating Animals)一書,揭露人類圈養動物的方式以及工廠式養殖的殘酷也促成茹素人口的增加。

弗爾在午夜造訪工廠式養殖農場,鉅細靡遺地描述動物是如何被殘酷屠殺,並將這些真相廣為流傳以告知人們現行的飲食習慣附帶的殘忍。這本書一發行,立即獲得廣大的迴響,許多人包含好萊塢影星娜塔莉‧波特曼(Natalie Portman)都因為閱讀此書,決定從此摒棄肉食。



Berlin - Vegans seek to exclude the use of animals for food, clothing, or any other purpose - and their numbers are growing.

The life of a vegan means living without any animal products. The most common reasons for following a vegan lifestyle are moral convictions about animal rights or welfare, as well as health, environmental, spiritual and religious concerns.

The old-fashioned view of a vegan involves a person who drinks soya juice, wears leather-free shoes and clothing, and feeds their dog potato pulp. However, the image of veganism has changed markedly in recent years with its advocates becoming outspoken champions for the environment, health and animal welfare.

Vegans make up approximately 1 per cent of the population in the United States, and veganism and vegetarianism are increasing in popularity across the globe. 'Veganism is the hype issue at the moment,' says Sebastian Zoesch, CEO of the German vegetarian society (VEBU).

The membership of VEBU, which represents the interests of all of Germany's vegetarians, including ovo-lacto ones, has increased from 2,700 to 3,500 in the last year alone. 'Veganism has undergone a major image makeover,' says Zoesch. 'It's probably a bit cooler because it is more consistent.'

The La Mano Verde restaurant in Berlin offers gourmet vegan food with meals like courgette rolls, walnut bolognese or tomato, turnip and cashew ravioli on the menu.
Even though all the ingredients used in the restaurant are vegan, the word itself is avoided. 'A lot of non-vegetarians don't like the word vegan,' explains restaurant chef Christiane Radin. The word still conjures up images of radical views towards nutrition and as the restaurant doesn't want to drive away any meat eaters or vegetarians the term 'plant-based' food is used instead.

The increase in popularity of veganism can be linked with the growth of the organic food movement in the last decade. A vegan diet has been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease and obesity although, as with any diet, it is important to ensure that it is well balanced. It is recommended that a minimum of five portions of fruit and vegetables should be eaten each day while the use of refined grains should be limited since much of the nutrient content is lost. Hydrogenated fats should be avoided while vegans need to ensure that they provide sources of vitamins B12 and D2 as well as Omega 3. Diet is of particular importance for pregnant women and children.

Although there are no exact figures for the number of vegans and vegetarians in the world, experts agree that the number of people doing without meat in their diets is on the increase. 'The idea that you can help save the environment by refraining from eating meat is relatively new,' says Zoesch. But, as before, ethical and health concerns also play a role in the popularity of veganism. The best-selling book 'Eating Animals' by Jonathan Safran Foer has also led to an increase in the number of vegetarians in the past year.

Foer visited factory farms in the middle of the night, described in detail how animals are slaughtered and explored the many stories used to justify current eating habits. The book had an immediate impact, with actress Natalie Portman among those who have since announced they are no longer eating meat.

參考連結:
http://vegetarianstar.com/2010/01/18/jonathan-safran-foer-on-labels-free-range-cage-free-video/

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/20/AR2009112001684.html?wprss=rss_print/bookworld

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/natalie-portman/jonathan-safran-foers-iea_b_334407.html

 

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